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The Aging Face – Anatomical Introduction

On the other hand, photoaged epidermis is characterized by striking variability: in its thickness, with alternating areas of atrophy and hyperplasia; in pigmentation, with alternating lentigenes and depigmented areas; in the degree of nuclear atypia; and in orderliness of keratinocytes maturation (7). In the past, sun-damaged epidermis was thought to be characterized by a reduction in structural elements, leading to skin wrinkling. In fact, the most striking feature of photodamaged skin is the presence of large quantities of thickened, poorly organized degraded elastic fibers which degenerate into an amorphous mass (8). The result is aged skin which does not retain moisture and which loosens and hangs. The ground substance component of the dermal connective tissue matrix is greatly increased. In the dermal cell population, photodamaged skin shows numerous, hyperplastic fibroblasts and abundant, partially degranulated mast cells which result in a chronic low grade inflammation termed heliodermatitis. Finally, photodamaged skin shows extensive changes in the microcirculation which can affect flap viability.

Overall the aging face can be viewed as a coupling of redistributed ptotic underlying soft tissue with overlying skin changes. Together, these changes combine to contribute to the overall impression of the aging face. For most aging face patients, this means that facial rejuvenation will necessitate the surgeon concentrating on five points of interest: 1. the jowl 2. the deepened melolabial folds 3. the neck 4. the malar region, and 5. the skin itself.

References:

1. Furnas DW. The retaining ligaments of the cheeks. Plast Recontr Surg 1989;83:11.
2. Sherris DA, Larrabee WF. Anatomic Considerations in Rhytidectomy. Facial Plast Surg 1996;12(3):215.
3. Weiss JS, Swanson NA. Baker S. Anatomy and physiology of aging skin. In: Krause CJ, ed. Aesthetic facial surgery. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1991:461.
4. Bhawan J, Andersen W, Lee J, Labadie R, Solares G. Photoaging versus intrinsic aging: A morphologic assessment of facial skin. J Cutan Pathol 1995;22:154.
5. Yousif, NJ, Mendelson BC. Anatomy of the midface. Clin Plast Surg 1995;22:227.
6. Kligman AM, Zheng P, Lavker RM. The anatomy and pathogenesis of wrinkles. Br J Dermat 1985;113:37.
7. Gilchrest, BA. Skin aging and photoaging: An overview. J Am Acad Dermatol 1989;21:610.
8. Kligman LH. Photoaging: Manifestations, prevention, and treatment. Dermatol Clin 1986;4(3):517.

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